NEWSLETTER

                   of The Northern Virginia Section (0511)
                    American Society for Quality Control

                     Volume 10     June 1994     Issue 6



				******

                               Auditors Unite!
                             by Allen R. Bailey

      Now that the European Economic Community is a fact of life,
the push for ISO 9000 certification is increasing.  The European
Community through recent EC parliamentary regulations is adopting
the ISO 9000 audit as the shield that will ensure public health and
safety.
      Public perception represents a key area of concern.  For the
process to work, the results of an audit must be accepted by the
public.  Auditors, like judges, must be above reproach.  As
accountants know, auditors must develop consistent auditing
practices, and these are the missing elements in the present
system.
      The business press speaks of widespread complaints about the
performance and consistency of ISO 9000 auditors and consultants. 
Some say that auditors do not deliver what they promise.  Others
say that costs are too high.  But prices is only an issue when
customer does not receive what was expected to be delivered.  So
both disappointments come down to mismatches between what was
promised and what was delivered.


                             Inconsistent Audits

      While some complaints may be unwarranted, all must be taken
seriously by those of us practicing the profession.
      I know of one company the passed the audit, but felt cheated
because the auditors left the site early to keep another
appointment.  While his company became registered, the president
did not feel that he 
received the full evaluation he paid for.
      At a meeting where another company was reporting on their
registration experience after successfully passing an ISO 9001
audit, the company president made the comment that the auditors had
waived the Design Control requirements, the difference between ISO
9001 and 9002 registration.  If the company had wanted an ISO 9002
audit, wouldn't they have asked for it?
      In the discussion that followed; the president said, "to pass
the audit, it is vary important to pick the right auditor." 
Indeed, it is.
      While these examples represent the extremes in auditing
performance, these types of comments generate an unfavorable
opinion of auditors and the
auditing process.  Unfortunately, bad reviews and unprofessional
behavior have a great impact on the business community perception.

                            On the Job Training?

      Auditing requires a unique blend of experience and training. 
The Lead Auditor training course focus is on interpreting the ISO
9000 standard, and deals only slightly with the auditing process. 
The technical skills come form training and experience, but the
auditing skills are developed on the job.  However, this can not be
the best method for training auditors.
      Furthermore, the need for auditors is rapidly growing, and
this will only make matters worse.  Now is the time to start
addressing these concerns and developing an action plan to address
them.
      I would like to see auditors meet to discuss these issues and
influence their own destinies.  The meeting could be held in
conjunction with a national conference so as to bring together a
consortium of auditors who can share their thoughts on the proper
management and conduct of audits.
      The meeting should deal with such variables as company size,
multiple product standards, multiple sites, and the new ISO 9000
standards.  Auditors could meet with their peers in small groups to
discuss problems of common interest.
      From this meeting, an action plan could be held in conjunction
with a national conference so as to bring together a consortium of
auditors who can share their thoughts on the proper management and
conduct of audits.
      The meeting should deal with such variables as company size,
multiple product standards, multiple sites, and the new ISO 9000
standards.  Auditors could meet with their peers in small groups to
discuss problems of common interest.
      From this meeting, an action plan could be developed to
address auditors' problems and concerns and possibly for the
formation of a professional organization for quality auditors.

                    A society for professional auditors?

      From such a meeting, a natural benefit may be perceived if
auditors were to form a society.  This society could provide a
forum for the discussion of issues that are important to auditors
such as training, scheduling, evaluation, and conformity
assessments.  The organization could also represent auditors' views
to the International Organization for Standardization, and
Department of Defense.
      As American manufacturing moves toward widespread adoption of
the ISO 9000 standards and the accreditation of testing
laboratories, it is important that quality auditing be perceived as
a full-fledged profession.  For auditing to reach its full
potential and benefits, the client companies must be confident in
our evaluations and judgments.  An association of auditors may be
the only way to guarantee this outcome.

Allen R. Bailey is a consultant and trainer in quality control and
product compliance for Compliance Quality International, in
Lancaster, NY.  He is registered with the International Register
for Assessors of Quality Systems and Technical Advisory Service for
Attorneys.

				******

                          Winning The War on Waste:
                          Changing the Way We Work

      William E. Conway, published by Conway Quality, Inc. (Trafalgar 
Square, Nashua, NH 03063), 1994,240 pp, $26.95 (list)

                     A Book Review by Norman C. Frank, 
                                PE, CQE, CQA
 
Conway has given us an "expert system" in a book.  He has
documented his thinking processes and action programs for bringing
continuous improvement into a company and keeping it there.  With
the book you can analyze situations and make decisions almost like
Bill Conway would.
 
This book answers the "how to" questions often asked by people who
are trying to initiate quality improvement using the Deming
philosophy.  Step-by-step guides provide for educating your
associates (including an appendix that provides detailed course
schedule and content); choosing what to work on, and how; and
analyzing work and eliminating wastes.  The book is loaded with
"how to" help, suggestions for projects, case studies of
applications, and questions to ask.  An actual case study to show
how each approach has been used in real life follows many of the
"how to" guidance sections.  Each case study illustrates how the
relentless pursuit of waste led to higher quality products at less
cost (the "quality secret").  The book promotes the concept that
action leads to achievement, which increases the motivation that
encourages the next action.  This concept helps "bootstrap" a
company from no program to a full continuous improvement program in
a relatively short time.
 
Conway discusses approaches for addressing the four guiding
principles of the continuous improvement process:  1) focus on
finding, quantifying, and eliminating the waste, 2) move people
into action in the right direction, 3) having determined the big
wastes, go to work to change and improve the major processes that
cause the waste and get rid of it, and 4) treat people as we would
like to be treated.
 
Conway covers "imagineering" in detail.  Imagineering is the art of
visualizing how things would be if everything were perfect, with no
problems, no errors, no troubles of any kind.  Conway provides a
set of questions to lead imagineering thinking to help you through
your first project.  Case studies also provide step-by-step
application of imagineering.  Perhaps missing are examples of using
commercial e-mail on the "electronic highway" for many operations
and communications and orders.
 
The four forms of waste - waste of materials, waste of capital,
waste of time, and waste from lost sales or other opportunities -
are the starting point for many of the discussions and case
studies.  Conway provides a step-by-step approach to finding the
waste.  One key chart shows "the way we work" by showing what
percentage of a person's time is actually spent doing value-added
and necessary work as opposed to unnecessary work and not working.
 
Major management innovations (MMI) are covered in a separate
chapter that provides cautions as well as a brief description of
the steps to achieving an MMI.
 
This book is must reading for managers and associates implementing
a continuous improvement program and training people in the
concepts and approaches that can be used to implement a continuous
improvement program.  The practical approaches and detailed
guidance provide a solid basis for application in any industry.
 
Mr. Frank has over 25 years experience in the field of quality, in
the areas of nuclear quality assurance, research and development,
and consulting.  He is currently in Washington, D.C., with CER
Corporation out of Las Vegas, Nevada, and can be reached at
202-488-5444.

				******

                         Quality Council of Indiana
                                Bill Wortman
                                P.O. Box 1545
                           Terre Haute , IN 47808

Dear Quality Professional,

      Since ASQC Section Officers are changed often, I would like to
reacquaint you with QCI's Certification and ISO Primers.
      We feel that our Certification Primers are the best
concentrated resources available for the ASQC certification exams
today.  All Primers are updated to reflect the current bodies of
knowledge.  Currently over 60% of ASQC Sections are using at least
one of our products.
      QCE has five Certification Primers the CQE, CQT, CMI, CRE and
CQA.  The first four have a Solution Text available to students
needing additional assistance with the more difficult mathematical
areas of study.  The cost of these Primers to individuals is $60.00
U.S. each, Solutions Texts are $40.00 U.S.  In bulk (5 or more) to
ASQC Sections, the Primer price is $50.00.  With Solutions
inserted, the price is $70.00.  Both of these options include U.S.
shipping.
      The ISO Primer is an excellent resource for companies aspiring
to be ISO registered.  It contains a thorough implementation and
documentation plan including general manual texts for ISO 9001 and
9002 in Wordperfect 5.1 or other format options.  Both 5.25" and
3.5" disks are provided.  The cost of this Primer to individuals is
$100.00 U.S.  For ASQC Sections using the Primer as a two-day
seminar text, two options are available which may save student's
money.  With orders of 5 or more, the ISO Primer can be purchased
with disks for $70.00 or w/o disks for $50.00.
      We work hard to satisfy ASQC Sections who use our materials
and perpetually give the instructor any Primer content revisions
free.  We accept overages as returns and shipping of any quantity
can be done immediately.  If anyone from you section is attending
the Annual Quality Congress please see us at booths 419, 421 and
423.
      Enclosed are informational brochures and an order form [not 
available in this electronic format]. Please advise if we can help.

                    Regards,
                    Bill L. Wortman


				******

                         Interrelationship Diagraph

_Purpose_

An _Interrelationship Diagraph_ is used to identify and explore
casual relationships between related concepts or ideas.  It is
particularly useful when the issue in question involves complex
cause and effect relationships or complex means-to-objective
relationships, or requires an understanding of the relationships
between ideas or concepts, an understanding of logical or
sequential relationship between ideas, input and consensus of a
number of people, or the correct sequencing of activities, ideas,
or objectives.

_Benefits_

*     It can be used to show the interconnectedness of ideas.
*     It is helpful in addressing causal relationships.
*     It can help a team begin to assess priorities.
*     It can be used to show how key causes relate to key effects.
*     It helps a team reach beyond preconceived causes.
*     It identifies both logical sequential connections between the
      central issue and the generated ideas.

_Limitations_

*     The assessment of causal relationships is subjective.  It is
      only the assessment of one group of people at one point in time.
*     The diagram does not help formulate action.
*     The meaning of the diagram may be unclear.


				******

                     Prioritization Using the Analytical
                              Hierarchy Process

One of the more powerful tools used during this project was the
Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), which is the work of Thomas L.
Saaty.  The process we used is described in _The Memory Jogger
Plus+_, GOAL/QPC 1989, pp. 103-116.  For a complete theoretical
explanation of the Analytical Hierarchy Process refer to Saaty's
book Decision Making for Leaders, University of Pittsburgh, 1988.

The process is based on three basic principles:

1.  Development of a hierarchy of the separate elements of a
project.

2.  Ranking of the relative importance using pairwise comparisons
of each of the elements under study.  (We accomplished this using
matrix evaluations at each level.)

3.  Logical consistency to ensure that elements are grouped
logically and ranked consistently.

Once the hierarchy has been developed, the elements at each level
of the hierarchy are ranked against each other, resulting in each
element of the model having a relative importance. Figure 4 in
"Refining the QFD Matrix" [not available in this electronic format] is an 
example of two of the matrices we used to rank the relative importance of 
our needs.

_Benefits_:

*     Unity:  AHP provides a single, flexible model for a wide
      range of unstructured problems.
*     Process Repetition:  AHP leads people to refine definitions
      and improve their judgment and understanding through
      repetition of the pairwise comparisons.
*     Judgment and Consensus:  AHP synthesizes a representative
      outcome from diverse judgments.
*     Tradeoffs:  AHP synthesizes a representative outcome from
      diverse judgments.
*     Synthesis:  AHP leads to an overall estimate of the
      desirability of each alternative.
*     Consistency:  AHP checks the logical consistency of judgements
      used.
*     Measurement:  AHP provides a scale for measuring intangibles.
*     Hierarchic structuring:  AHP reflects the natural tendency of
      the mind to sort information into different levels and to
      group like elements in each level.

_Limitations_:

*     The process is only as good as the hierarchy developed.
*     Good operational definitions of the elements are critical to
consistent judgments.
*     The pairwise comparison process is time-consuming with
anything bigger than a simple hierarchy.



                            ********************
                                EDITOR'S NOTE

                       Northern Virginia Section 0511
                    American Society for Quality Control

                      Policy on Newsletter Advertising
                                 Policy 93-1
                               Revision:  none
                               Date:  11-13-93

1.0  Scope
This policy establishes guidelines and rates for advertising in the
Section Newsletter.

2.0 Policy
The section, as a service to its members, periodically publishes a
newsletter.  The primary purpose of the newsletter is to convey
information to Section members.  In addition, advertising for
quality related product or services may be included in the
newsletter.

The newsletter editor shall have sole discretion as to what
advertising may be accepted, based upon space available, tasteful
presentation and relation to the field of Quality Assurance.

In the case of published information, the Section may charge for
publication of positions available.  The Section will not charge
members, but may charge non members for publication of notices of
positions sought.

3.0 Definitions
Advertising is any message, text, graphical representation or any
combination there of which conveys information on products or
services, the revenue from which would accrue to other than the
Section treasury.

4.0 Procedure
Newsletter advertising rates for one time publication are as
follows:
Full page                    (7x10)        $100.00
Half page                    (3 Čx10)        60.00
Half page                    (7x4■)          50.00
Business Card                (2x3ź)          20.00

Camera ready advertising copy must be received by the first of the
month of publication.

5.0 Adoption
Adopted at the regular meeting of the Board of Directors, Section
0511 on this date.

RUSS CARSTENSEN
Chair, Section 0511
Signed, 1993

Other notes:

July 1, 1994 brings new officers to Section 0511 Board of Directors:

Chairperson: Mary Ann Stasiak
Vice Chairperson: Barbara Lembcke
Arrangements & Programs: Russell Carstensen
Education: Jim Wilson
Health Care: David Simmons
Newsletter Editor: Anthony Pastuszak
Publicity: Harvey Shaw

Please take a moment of you time at the next dinner meetings and welcome
the new officers to the Section.  Anyone desiring to assist any of the
board members in their efforts to make Section 0511 the very best Section
in the United States, look at the last page of the Newsletter and all the
board members and their phone numbers are listed for you convenience. 

                            ********************

                            Dedicated Leadership
                             by Michelle Meyer, 
                          Chairperson, Section 1107

We have looked at management commitment to continuous improvement,
and managing in a declining market place.  From these presentations
it was clear that the management practices of the past are not good
enough to carry our organizations into the future.

The traditional management style, often referred to as Theory X or
"Management by Fear", was derived from several negative assumptions about
people.  People were considered basically lazy, irresponsible, incapable
of directing their own actions, indifferent to organizational needs and
incapable of making decisions. 

Out of this management style grew organizations where piecework
incentives were used to meet customer demands.  Emphasis was placed
on discipline to punish poor quality.  Reliance on inspection
personnel was used to detect defects.  Debates on the factory floor
centered on fixing blame and authority to shut machines down. 
Relationships between operators and inspectors were hostile and
tense.  Upper management criticized inspection and production for
high scrap rates.  Operators were mostly ignored as a resource for
solving quality problems and process improvement.

In today's marketplace if organizations want to survive and compete
today's managers must learn to "Lead" not merely "Manage".  The
dictionary defines "Managing" as directing or controlling; exerting
control over; making one submissive to one's discipline.  "Leading"
is defined as showing the way by going in advance; guiding in a
direction.

Upper management needs to create systems and environments for
operators, engineers and middle managers to prevent the need for
final inspection and high scrap rates.  The organization needs to
place emphasis on the "hows" and "whys" of quality improvement and
rely on operator self-inspection and process control to prevent
defects.  Debates on the factory floor should center on
interpretation of the standards and on fixing problems.  People at
all levels of the organization should be encouraged to participate
in quality and process improvement.

The management style needed in the future is not the same
management style that spurred the industrial revolution and the
systems of mass production.  The ability to guide, coach and
facilitate are far more important than the ability to control and
dominate people and situations.  With the cultural changes needed
within our organizations, top managers must be able to see through
the chaos to the future and pull, not push, the organization into
a new culture and methods of doing business.

				******

         HeroZ!:  Empower Yourself, Your Coworkers, Your Company
                       William C. Byham, Ph.D and 
                                  Jeff Cox

published by Harmony Books (201 East 50th Street, New York, NY
10022) 1994, 210 pp, $18 (list)

                     A book review by Norman C. Frank, 
                                PE, CQE, CQA
                               CER Corporation

_HeroZ!_ is the story of Art, Mac, and Wendy, who work in medieval
Lamron Castle making magic arrows for the knights to use in
defending the citizens from fire-breathing dragons.  Through the
imaginative story the book shows the application of a set of
principles, given in the form of "spells", that can be applied in
many situations to ensure people communicate in a positive way to
reach their goals.

This book is easily read and easy to understand.  The story format
makes learning the principles of continuous improvement,
empowerment, and teamwork fun.  The errors Art, Mac, and Wendy make
as they learn to use the principles show that it is OK to make
errors as you work to learn.

Step by step the authors walk you through the application of
continuous improvement principles, from the setting of goals to the
involvement of everyone in decisions.  It shows that even if you
don't have management's full acceptance, you can begin the process
by setting goals for your own improvement.

The strengths of the book are its imaginative approach to teaching
the skills and approaches needed for empowerment, and its
readability.  Although somewhat simplistic, this same simplicity
allows the principles to be taught without the complexity or
confusion of other interactions.  The book is a refreshing change
from the dry presentations of many books.

The authors make the process of empowerment understandable for
everyone.  It would be useful as a handout to everyone in the
company as a supplemental text before, during, or after beginning
a continuous improvement program.  It is for everyone who wants to
do better in their job and in their personal lives.

Mr. Frank has over 25 years experience in the field of quality, in
the areas of nuclear quality assurance, research and development,
and consulting.  He is currently in Washington, D.C., with CER
Corporation out of Las Vegas, Nevada, and can be reached at
(202)488-5444.

				******

                        County's TQM effort pays off
                               by Trif Alatzas

    Total quality management in part helped trim $10 million worth
of spending from Monroe County's budget last year, County Executive
Robert L. King told members of Rochester's American Society for
Quality Control.
      "We actually brought the budget in at $10 million below what
were very tight estimates,"  King said.  "I can't tell you yet,
because the analysis isn't done, that that was exclusively the
result of TQM.  But I guarantee that in large part, TQM has had a
very favorable impact on our spending."
      The county's final 1993 budget numbers are expected sometime
next month.  But even with the $10 million in savings, King
estimates the 1993 budget will end up with a $6 million deficit,
less than 1 percent of the county's total budget.
      King, in meeting with society Tuesday, attributed the deficit
to a variety of factors, including rising Medicaid costs,
underperforming sales tax and costs at the Mill Seat Landfill.  The
deficit was not addressed in the 1994 budget; King plans to include
it 1995 numbers.
      King made his remarks at a seminar at the 50th annual
Rochester Section of the American Society for Quality Control
Conference, held at the Rochester Riverside Convention Center.
      King has promised to institute total quality management
county-wide.  Among other things, it puts decision-making into the
hands of lower department workers and is supposed to improve
productivity and customer service.
      He said the count's TQM efforts have helped officials to delay
the need to build a new jail, improve area parks, strengthen the
Department of Social Services fraud unit and better manage the
refurbished Greater Rochester International Airport. 
      "I think he's doing well, but I think there needs to be
cooperation with the city more," said Mukhles Rahman, who owns a
quality engineering consultant company in Penfield, and listened to
King's remarks.  "But I think TQM can help bridge the two rather
than be antagonistic.

				******

                The three C's can improve job satisfaction

      I have come to the sad conclusion that there is a great deal
of job dissatisfaction in our area, particularly in retail 
establishment and our schools.
      My conclusion is drawn from visiting department stores, fast-
food restaurants, clothing stores, car dealerships and specialty
shops.  In store after store, the employees talk openly about their
pay, their supervisors, their work schedules, vacations and time
off.
      I admit my conclusion is more intuitive than scientific, but
this kind of talk tells me these folks don't like their jobs.
      Unfortunately, I can supplement these retail experiences with
listening to teachers during the summer express their dread that
school is about to start.  Then about this time of year I hear so
may of them pleading for classes to end.  Isn't there anyone out
there who likes his or her job like I do?
      I sometimes can't wait for Monday.  No, it isn't because I
want to get away from my slave-driving wife.  It is because I find
deep satisfaction in what I do.
      Now, someone is probably thinking there is a huge difference
in the potential for satisfaction when comparing a retail clerk's
position with that of an attorney.  I agree, but that doesn't
answer the comparison of the teacher and the attorney.  It also
begs the question, Does this mean that simply because the two jobs
don't compare we can't improve the retail job to create greater
satisfaction?
      Fortunately, I'm not alone in believing that job satisfaction
can be improved.  I had the pleasure of hearing Alfie Kohn at the
American Society of Quality Control meeting Saturday night.  Mr.
Kohn is the author of "Punished by Rewards," Houghton Mifflin,
1993.  His thesis is that rewards like pay incentive plans,
suggestion awards and even feigned praise are disincentives to
improving job performance and satisfaction.  I'll leave a greater
explanation to your reading of his book.
      Kohn does suggest that there are three C's to improving
employee productivity and those three C's involve changing the way
the employee is treated.  Mr. Kohn sees incentive approaches as
manipulative "You get this if you do that."  The better approach
involves these C's:

_Collaboration_

      Employees want and need to work together, not competitively. 
Most workers can do a better job working together rather than on
their own.
      For one thing, working together creates a sense of belonging,
of being an integral part of something.  It creates, in a small
sense, a feeling of community.
      There is something in the human spirit that longs for
community.  Employers should capitalize on that desire and fashion
jobs that foster collaboration and reject competition.

_Content_

      Employers need to fashion jobs that are meaningful, which
matter, provide enjoyment, create satisfaction, recognize
contribution and make a difference.
      Is that possible in a fast-food restaurant?  I think so, if
management is willing to restructure the job so that there is the
potential for some of these things to happen.  For example, most of
us like to learn a new skill to experience something new.  There
are very few jobs which can't be structured to do these two things
offer new skills and experiences.

_Choice_

I believe I would learn to hate a job which prevented me from
having any say as to how I did my job.  I would feel controlled and
powerless.  There would be no chance to be creative or innovative. 
Boy, that would be dull.
      But you see that is why so many employees like those I've
described don't find their work satisfying.
      Employees who have a chance to make decisions about their work
tend to be more satisfied with their jobs.
      However, "choice" must be real.  You can't have work teams and
self-directed work units in name only.  They truly must be given a
real choice.
      It is pretty evident to me when I walk into a business as to
whether the employees like their work or not.  Those who do find
satisfaction in their jobs typically have managers  who follow the
three C's of collaboration, content and choice.


      Shelburne Ferguson Jr. is a businessman, attorney and
management consultant in Kingsport.

				******

             THE  MYTH AND MISDIRECTION OF EMPLOYEE EMPOWERMENT
                                by Les Landes

      Employee empowerment is a misguided notion that's mostly a
myth in many organizations.  The typical scenario goes something
like this:  The boss announces that the company is going to launch
a "total quality management" program, and workers are encouraged to
"take initiatives" on their own "since they know more about their
own jobs than anyone else."
      In order to make sure that people have a clear understanding
of what the company is up to and what their role is going to be in
bringing about total quality, everyone attends a day long course to
learn about the principles of continuous improvement and employee
empowerment.
      Shortly after the course, an employee charges out to look for
ways to exercise his newfound power.  He makes an "executive
decision" to pitch $2 million worth of old inventory.  The boss
finds out about it and blows a fuse.  "Are you crazy?"  he screams. 
"When we said you were empowered to take initiative, we didn't mean
you could do something like *that*, for crying out loud!  Where's
your common sense?  Next time, ask before you do something stupid."
      That's not an exaggeration.  It happened at a Pennsylvania
company, and similar scenarios are unfolding throughout corporate
America.  A study conducted in 1990 by the Gallup organization for
American Society for Quality Control asked working people a number
of questions about empowerment-related issues.  When asked if
employees had been encouraged by management to get involved in
decision making, 66 percent of respondents said yes.  When asked if
in fact, they were authorized to make the kinds of decisions
management was talking about, the number plummeted to 14 percent. 

      When empowerment runs into trouble, companies respond in
various ways.  Sometimes they simply decide it isn't working and
put an end to it.  Employees are angry, but not very surprised. 
They've heard management profess commitment to changes before; it
never lasts long.  Less often, management concludes it hasn't gone
far enough in letting people do their own thing; maybe this
empowerment stuff will work if we *really* give everyone free
reign.  The usual result:  chaos and even more frustration.
      One basic problem with empowerment goes right to the roof of
the word "power".  Some organizations have found that "empowered"
people start wielding authority with the same kind of disregard for
cooperation and teamwork that the empowerment movement is intended
to eradicate.  The reason is fairly evident.  Employees often think
of empowerment in terms of *self*-empowerment.  They lose sight of
the fact that teamwork and cooperation depend on each element in
the system working in concert with every other element.
      If organizations manage to get beyond the trap of individual
self-empowerment, another problem often sets in:  *team*
empowerment.  This type of insular thinking is at work when tight-
knit, self-directed teams compete with other self-directed teams. 
Rather than forming a network of strategically linked teams, each
team focuses on its own self-interest.  Once again, they lose touch
with the company's overall goals and become inner-directed.
      Workers usually aren't prepared to exercise the kind of
leadership and initiative that "empowerment" implies.  Even if it
*were* possible to generate empowerment from training, which is
highly debatable, the few hours of instruction that people
typically receive aren't nearly enough to provide the knowledge and
confidence needed to reverse a lifetime of compliance in the
workplace.  When employees actually do exercise some power and make
mistakes, the negative reaction from management undermines the very
processes that the company is trying to employ.
      Ultimately, management must take responsibility for
maintaining control in the organization■for ensuring symmetry in
the execution of the master plan.  I'm not suggesting that managers
simply impose controls.  Controls should be designed jointly my
management and employees.  But someone must make the final decision
about what kind of system will prevail.  Someone must ensure that
those controls are operating as designed and in a way that is
consistent with the interests of individual  employees,
departments, and the overall business plan.
      That's the roll of management.  And when that role is
abdicated in the name of empowerment, managers and employees alike
feel adrift in a sea of uncertainty.  In the end, they often return
to the familiar patterns of the past, not because anyone was
insincere, but because management lost sight of its appropriate
role and responsibilities in a misguided effort to "share power."
      People need to be *equipped*, not empowered.  They need to be
equipped with knowledge, skills, tools, and a master plan.  They
need a clear set of options■developed jointly by managers and
employees■that define the parameters of the decisions they can
make.  They way, everybody knows what kinds of initiatives may■and
may not be exercises in the name of empowerment.

Les Landes is a principal of Landes Communications in St. Louis,
MO.

				******


                               Qualifying for
                            Management Standards

                              TAKE ON THE WORLD
                              by David Wallace

      When the Total Quality Management bandwagon passed through
town, starting a few years ago, some common-sense managers said
their idea of TQM was just to keep the customer satisfied.  Others,
who embraced TQM, pointed to quantifiable savings and business
increases thanks to its improvements.
      But how high-quality is your quality program?  Doubters
continue to rail against the quality movement, but its believers
are now seeking a pedigree for their efforts.  The quality movement
spawned a sequel as companies wonder how good their quality
programs were.
      In 1987, the International Organization for Standardization
set down general standards for quality management systems.  To
qualify, companies undergo a review of manufacturing, distribution
and customer-service programs.   Product design to actual
production-line inspection and other elements are all considered. 
ISO 9000 and 9004 are the information guidelines.  ISO 9001 is the
broadest scope of total quality system, encompassing design,
implementation, production, installation, testing and service.  ISO
9002 covers most, but not all, those topics emphasizing production,
installation, testing and service.
      By the end of 1993, 74 countries recognized the ISO 9000
standard and more than 2,000 U.S. companies had been certified. 
More than 30,000 European firms have ISO 9000 approval, and
companies are finding it an edge over their competitors.  Some
companies require their suppliers to have ISO certification, or
give preference to firms with it.
      ISO certification can help even if companies aren't doing a
substantial amount of international business, said Donna Shamblin,
director of quality at United Electric Supply Co. Inc. in Wilmington. 
Although the firm has had a quality program since 1988, it sought the ISO
recognition for its headquarters office to reinforce continuous
improvement, she said.  United supplies electrical materials to regional
customers, but that includes multinational corporations like DuPont Co.
and Scott Paper Co. 
      "We haven't won an order because we're ISO certified but we
hope to," she said.  "We weren't forced into it, we're trying to
stay ahead of the game.  Now, we're researching the cost of quality
and we're moving toward certifying all seven of our facilities. 
Each facility is registered individually and the registrar comes
back for surveillance audits every six months.  It's a never-ending
process."
      Dubious quality watchers have seen companies create and
implement a quality program, then create a potentially lucrative
business spreading the gospel to other firms.  Xerox, after winning
the Malcolm Baldridge Award, and Allen-Bradley Co. offered to share
their quality management systems.  Smaller firms and independent
consultants have popped up all over promising empowerment, higher
quality and other benefits.
      So the rule "caveat emptor" applies not only to the quality
instructor, but to the company certifying ISO 9000 compliance.  Not
all registrations are created equal.  Although there are standards,
it is still very much a customer-oriented decision.  If you
customer-oriented decision.  If your customer recognizes the
efficiency or quality of TQM without ISO 9000, that may be enough. 
Companies may want to consult the American Society for Quality
Control  to find an ISO consultant.
      _The society_ created an affiliate that accredits companies
doing ISO registration audits.  To date, 15 companies have made the
list, which is available by fax-back service at (800) 248-1946.
      Be  aware that not all registrars of ISO are recognized
worldwide.  Learn who recognized your evaluator's seal of approval. 
The RvC in Netherlands or NAACB in Great Britain are two agencies
that review accreditation in Europe.
      Dave Carroll, product manager at Plitek Inc., recalled hearing
that ISO certification was as essential as a passport for doing
business in Europe.  The 85-employee firm in Des Plaines, Ill.,
makes the plastic working parts of computer disks and videotapes. 
Sales had more than doubled in four years and firm was growing
internationally, he said.
      "Two years ago the buzz was 'Don't even think of selling
anything in Europe unless you're ISO registered,'" he said.  "I'm
certain that it influences a decision.  But there was an illusion
that you'd be locked out without it."
      So the company developed a quality plan and chose to be
reviewed by Underwriters Laboratories Inc. Plitek announced its
certification in October 1993 and each year the company's policies
and compliance will be re-examined.  Although the designation
hasn't made or broken a sale, it may give the company an advantage,
he said.
      It's not just a badge you wear or a door-opener.  It does
that, but more importantly, it says a lot about the operation," he
said.  "You can guarantee communication, quality...anything that's
critical to you customer.  Most of us feel like we can't operate
without it.  We're not doing it just to put a plaque up
on the wall for a plant tour."
      The company's mission statement is "to meet or exceed customer
expectations" ■ a variation on the theme of "Keep the customer
satisfied."

				*****

Northern Virginia Section 0511 would like to express it's
appreciation to ADI Technology Corporation of Arlington, Virginia
for contribution time, effort, and resources in printing our
Section's Newsletter.  Thank Q!