The Northern Virginia Section 0511
American Society Of Quality Control
NV Section 0511 Information HOTLINE:
703-978-2772 or 703-977-ASQC 
Volume 11           January, 1995            Issue 4 
CHAIRPERSON: Mary Ann Stasiak   	(O)703-604-2210, X7411
VICE CHAIRPERSON: Barbara A. Lembcke
George Mason University                 (O)703-993-8834
Office of Finance & Planning            (F)703-993-8707
                        Internet:       LEMBCKE@GMU.EDU
SECRETARY: William A. Eastham, Jr.      (O)202-586-3628
APEX                                    (F)202-586-7734
TREASURER: Roger Semplak                (H)703-491-8227
AUDITING: John Matthewson                  703-534-3614
MEMBERSHIP: Henry Kling                 (O)703-360-9134
PROGRAMS: Russell V. Carstensen         (O)703-739-0084
EDUCATION: Jim Wilson                   (O)703-330-4222
EG&G WASC Inc.                          (F)703-330-4099
PUBLICITY: Harvey Shaw                  (O)703-892-2740
ADI Technology Corp                     (F)703-892-8994
NEWSLETTER EDITOR: Anthony A. Pastuszak (O)703-478-5384
Information Concepts Unlimited          (F)703-742-8738
EXAMINING (Upgrades): Dallas E. Frederick  (O)703-750-4273
Washington Gas                          (F)703-750-5603
HISTORIAN: Walter M. Mendus             (O)703-354-5932
PROFESSIONAL LIAISON: Barba Affourtit   (O)703-778-0318
IRI, Inc.                               (F)703-323-5015
ELECTRONIC MEDIA: William N. Casti      (O)703-513-5673
HEALTH CARE: David Simmons              (O)703-938-5227
STUDENT ACTIVITIES: Bob Gehagan         T.B.A
REGIONAL DIRECTOR: Dave Simmons 	(O)717-780-4974
Message From The CHAIR 
Do you have an idea for a catchy name for this newsletter? Section 0511 is
running a contest for the best newsletter name. The winner will be
announced at the April dinner meeting and treated to a free dinner at
May's dinner meeting. You don't need to be present to win - entries can be
made to me by phone or fax. See the back of this newsletter for my number. 
You may have heard recently about Section 0511 achieving Level IV in the
Section Management Plan (SMP), but not really understood what that meant.
The Section Management Plan created by National helps sections and
encourages more structured and more  planning-oriented by achieving
progressive levels for higher levels of forward planning and goal
achievement. Last year we used the SMP to help us structure our processes
better, push ourselves to plan our goals and how to reach them, focus on
meeting specific needs of people in our membership, and reach out to the
community around us. Through a lot of hard work and dedication, we reached
Level IV, the highest level defined in the plan. Please join us on January
18th at The Silver Plate as we receive a plaque from our Regional
Director, Steve Bailey, identifying us as a Level IV section. Each year we
must re- qualify, and we will attempt to maintain our level for 1994-95. 
The Board has decided to take on the difficult task of updating the
Section by-laws. Originally written and adopted in 1983, the by-laws have
become somewhat outdated and need to reflect the current methods and
processes. As these by-laws will be put to a general vote by the
membership, you will be seeing these changes in the coming months. We
appreciate your support in this effort. 
Once again our Education Committee has a great line-up of classes and
workshops for the coming months. The ISO-9000 Users' Group and Measuring
Organizational Performance Study Group continue to grow and tackle new
subjects. And don't forget the Process An analysis Workshop in February.
Jump in and take advantage of these valuable opportunities. 
Got a comment, complaint, or "attaboy" for us? Give me a call - I'd love
to hear from you. Remember, your Board is here to meet your needs. 
Mary Ann Stasiak
95 Chairman, Section 0511 12/94 
Bill Casti, Chair
Keep your questions and comments coming! You can reach me by any of the
following means: 
Home:  703-716-0723 Before 10PM,M-F
Pager: 703-513-5673 (leave message after 10 PM)
Fax:   703-716-0479 (8AM-5PM, M-F)
US Mail:        PO Box 1412
                Herndon, VA 22070-1412
This article is (c)opyright 1994 by Bill Casti and Harvey Shaw. 
Education Committee Update
Chair:  Jim Wilson
Your Education Committee has responded to the results of our membership
survey by offering a Customer Service Seminar, your first choice of
educational needs.  The seminar was held on Saturday morning (your first
choice), 19 November at the Fairfax City L Library Meeting Room.  Lea
Edwards was the seminar leader.  She did an excellent job!  The library
opened its doors at 10:00 a.m. and we were ready with coffee, juices,
bagels, muffins, and white seedless grapes for our attendees. 
We had 21 reservations and 14 attendees.  Ten of those attending were ASQC
members.  The guests were provided with ASQC membership application
Lea discussed things that really matter to a customer, their total buying
experience, and the problems that arise when we don't know enough about
our customers' perceptions.  She described the Discovery Approach to
understanding customers.  We were expose d to the notion of Moments of
Truth, any episode in which the customer comes into contact with the
organization and gets an impression of its service.  We used a Cycle of
Service Model in a small group exercise to better understand the Moments
of Truth a customer experiences in doing business with us.  And, finally,
we used a Customer Value Model to determine ways to link service quality
measurements with work process improvement. 
Our next event to respond to your priority educational needs is a Workshop
on Work Process Analysis, planned for Saturday, 14 January 1995 at the
Fairfax City Library Meeting Room.  The workshop will be conducted by two
of our very own Education Committee Members, David Kae and David Williams. 
David Kae is a Senior Quality Assurance Engineer.  LCDR David Williams,
USCG, travels around the country giving seminars and workshops on
implementing quality.  Since these workshop leaders are hands-on
practitioners , they will integrate proven quality management tools into a
problem-solving/decision-making structure for you. 
Because registration is limited, all participants must be pre-registered. 
Send your check payable to "ASQC Section 0511" to EG&G WASC, Inc., ATTN: 
Kathy Kreh, 8809 Sudley Road, Manassas, VA 22110; phone 703-330-4325;
(Metro) 631-2670; Fax 703-330-4305 or 4099. 
Your Education Committee will offer CQA/CQE review courses in the Spring
of 1995.  If you are interested in managing this effort, teaching the
courses, or participating in these courses, call Jim Wilson at
703-330-4222; (Metro) 631-2670; Fax 703-330-4099. 

ISO 9000
Ms. Crystal Pilkins 
H-703-1232 W-318-6440
ISO Users' Group Meeting Schedule:
Just a reminder: 
February 22, 1995 6:30 to 8:30 p.m.
Joe Marchese, President of Lloyd's Register Quality Assurance, USA Division 
If you would like more information, please contact: 
Donett Murphy   	703-406-8787, or
Crystal Pilkins         703-318-6440.
ASQC MOP (The Measurement of Organizational Performance) Study Group 
Coordinator: Dr. Robert Wise, Dynamic Business Systems 
703-549-3824 X305
The November meeting of the MOP Study Group featured Barry DesRoches who
is Senior Management Analyst in the Office of Chief Counsel in the IRS.
Mr. DesRoches's presentation began with an overview of the IRS' systems
approach to management based on cross- functional business systems. He
then illustrated the questions and procedures they used to develop key
performance measures. He emphasized that measures will not work if they do
not make sense to the people involved in the measurement process. 
December 14: Mr. Carl Thor, noted author and consultant on performance
measurement, will discuss his latest book, The Measures of Success. 
January 11: Panel discussion by five MOP Group members reviewing the five
Fall Presentations. A great opportunity to get up to date on what the MOP
Group has been learning before starting the Winter-Spring Series. 
MOP Study Group meetings are held on the second Wednesday of each month,
7:00-9:00 PM at the VSE Corporation, 2550 Huntington Avenue, Alexandria,
VA, just south of Route 495. Contact Bob Wise for more information. 
Robert Wise
Dynamic Business Systems
515 King St., Ste. 340
Alexandria, VA 22314
Process Improvement Workshop
Purpose:        Learn a problem-solving method that works
                David Kae
                David Williams
                Saturday, 14 January 1995, 10 a.m. to 1 p.m.
Location:       Fairfax City Library, Fairfax City, VA
Cost:  The fee is $10.00 for ASQC members and $15.00 for non-members
       Registration fee covers refreshments and workshop materials. 
So you have read the Team Handbook, Memory Jogger, Memory Jogger Plus,
and/or have been to workshops on good quality management tools and their
uses.  Or you haven't consulted the foregoing literature, but you know
some of the tools and have an idea they may be useful if you just knew
what to do with them.  Now what?  What do you do with all this valuable
Section 0511's Process Improvement Workshop is what you need to help you
find the answers.  The Workshop will integrate proven quality management
tools into a problem- solving/decision-making structure. 
The Workshop will consist of a brief overview of quality,
customer-supplier relationships, and continuous improvement.  Several
problem-solving models will be reviewed, a recommended model incorporating
the best of each will be discussed, and the group  will work through some
simple problems.  There will also be a brief discussion on process
measurement, i.e., the steps, tools, and output. 
To register for the Process Improvement Workshop, call Kathy Kreh,
703-330-4325, by 6 January 1995. 
New Members - Old Timers - And Everybody Else
Come to this exercise and hear:
* Dr. R. Clifton Bailey,
* Dr. Joan Cassidy, and
* Henry Kling
as they present those lessons learned the hard way, those things you wish
somebody told you on your first day at work in the quality profession. 
Saturday 07 January 1995
10:00 AM until Noon
The Washington GAS Springfield Operations Center
(the same place where ASQC Exams are given/taken)
6801 Industrial Road
Dress informally
Price is $10.00
Due to limited seating capacity, call Henry (703)-360-9134 for
reservations. What if it snows? We fall back to the next Saturday, 14
January 1995. 
Quality Systems Education
Spring 1995
In 1987, the International Organization for Standardization, representing
more than 90 countries, published a series of quality assurance standards
- the ISO 9000 Series. The intent of these standards was to provide a
common world-wide set of quality system em guidelines, requirements and
measurable evaluation criteria. First intended for companies doing
business in the European Community, ISO 9000 is fast becoming a key
strategic tool for thousands of companies in the United States. Government
agencies world-wide d-wide are beginning to use the standard, including the U.S.
Department of Defense (DOD) which has authorized the optional use of the
ISO 9000 standards on military contracts instead of the MIL-Q-9858A. 
The NOVA Woodbridge Campus, in conjunction with the American Society for
Quality Control (ASQC), Northern Virginia Chapter, offers up-to-date
information on the status of ISO 9000 registration requirements, and
implementation tools and techniques and gene general program development
support. Most courses qualify for ASQC recertification units (R.U.'s). For
additional information about this program, Call (703)-878-5654. 
ISO 9000 General Overview .4 CEU $65.00 Implementing ISO 9000 requires
commitment and guidance from the top. This four-hour overview is designed
to: provide a basic understanding of the ISO series of standards; define
the purpose and benefits a company may realize before, during and after
registration , define the registration process; discuss how to select an
appropriate registrar; and discuss management's role in the transition.
This course will help you understand what ISO 9000 is and how it works and
help you decide whether it's right for your organization. 

  MNGT 501-30W Henry Woodcock, Industrial Engineer One Session, Wednesday,
  18JAN95, 09:00 AM - 01:00 PM 

  MNGT 501-31W Henry Woodcock, Industrial Engineer One Session, Saturday,
  28JAN95 09:00 AM - 01:00 PM
IOS 9000: Building an Effective Quality Manual - .4 CEU/RU's $100.00 Now
that your organization is committed to establishing a quality system which
meets the intent of ANSI/ASQC 9000 (series) and ISO 9000 (series)
Standards and you are the one individual assigned to make it happen, you
may need a kick start to help get the process going. This one-day seminar
provides instruction of building your Quality Manual as a centerpiece for
such a program. The instructors will provide you with step-by-step
guidance for laying out a manual tailored to your organization's needs to
ens ensure that quality management and system elements are properly
identified, and that provisions for monitoring and controlling quality
system performance are included. (Each participant will receive a copy of
a computer disk containing a draft Quality manual designed to facilitate
the process of building a Quality Manual). 

  MNGT 503-30W Mike Steiner, CQA, and Harvey Shaw, CQA One Session at the
  Richard J. Ernst Community Center, Thursday 23FEB95, 08:00 AM - Noon

  MNGT 503-31W Mike Steiner, CQA, and Harvey Shaw, CQA One Session at the
  Richard J. Ernst Community Center, Wednesday, 08MAR95, 08:00 AM - Noon. 
ISO 9000 Series Standards - 1994 Revisions .4 CEU $75.00 The International
Organization for Standardization is committed to evaluating the ISO 9000
series standard every five years. The standards were accepted in 1987 and
have just completed their evaluation and revision cycle. Companies
considering registration n will, in most cases, be audited to the 1994
version of the standard (9001, 9002, 9003). This course is designed to
provide a detailed overview of the changes, additions and deletions of the
revised 1994 ISO 9000 Standards and define how these changes ma y affect
an organization's existing or developing Quality Management Systems. (A
$49.00 materials fee paid in class to the instructors includes an official
copy of the ANSI/ASQC Q9000-1994 Series Quality Standards which was
published in July 1994). 

  MNGT 504-30W Peter Jones and Norm Hills, CQAs, CQEs. One Session at the
  Richard J. Ernst Community Center, Saturday, 04FEB95, 09:00 AM - 01:00 PM

  MNGT 504-31W Peter Jones and Norm Hills, CQAs, CQEs. One Session at the
  Richard J. Ernst Community Center, Wednesday, 15FEB95, 09:00 AM - 01:00 PM
ISO 9000: Quality and Systems Auditing .8 CEU/RU's $145.00 This one day
seminar will instruct participants on the tools, philosophy, techniques
and standards for efficient and effective philosophy, techniques and
standards for efficient and effective quality systems auditing ANSI/ASQC
9000 and ISO 9000 standards will be covered. 

  MNGT 903-30W Peter Jones, CQE, CQA and Harvey Shaw, CQA. One Session at
  the Richard J. Ernst Community Center, Thursday, 16MAR95, 08:00 AM - 05:00

  MNGT 903-31W Peter Jones, CQE, CQA, and Harvey Shaw, CQA One Session at
  the Richard J. Ernst Community Center, Saturday, 08APR95, 08:00 AM - 05:00
ISO 9000: Standards and Systems Registration .8 CEU/RU's $145.00 A one day
seminar designed to introduce participants to the ISO 9000 standards,
their requirements, and the registration process. This seminar will help
individuals determine if ISO 9000 registration is appropriate for their

  MNGT 902-30W Robert Steele, CQA, and Norman Hill, CQA One Session at the
  Richard J. Ernst Community Center, Thursday, 23MAR95, 08:00 AM-05:00 PM
ISO 9000: Quality Systems Documentation .8 CEU $145.00 The basis of an ISO
9000 Quality Management System is documentation. A company is audited to
its documented system and employees must work to and comply with that
documented system. This workshop is designed to provide a practical
approach to the evaluation on, clear definition and documentation of an ISO
9001, 9002, and/or 9003 compliant quality system. Participants learn how
to interpret and translate the ISO requirements into the Quality Manual,
Procedures, Work Instructions and Quality Records and to cross  reference
existing military standard (MIL-Q-9858A, MIL-I-45208) systems with ISO
standards. This workshop will also address how to develop and maintain
effective documentation usage, review, storage/access and controls. 

  MNGT 502-30W Henry Woodcock, Industrial Engineer One Session at the
  Richard J. Ernst Community Center, Thursday, 30MAR95, 08:00 AM - 05:00 PM
ISO 9000: Uniting Total Quality Management and ISO 9000 Implementation .8
CEU/RU's $145.00 This one day seminar will explain the benefits of using
TQM to implement the International Quality System Standards. Participants
will learn techniques for analyzing processes, cultivating leadership,
maintaining constancy of purpose, and holding down imp implementation costs.

  MNGT 904-30W Rebecca Lovern, TQM Manager One Session at the Richard J.
  Ernst Community Center, Thursday, 20APR95 08:00 AM - 05:00 PM. 
ISO 9000 Lead Auditor Training The Woodbridge Campus is planning to offer
ISO 9000 Auditor training. Call the Office of Continuing Education for
more information at 878-5654. 
Norman C. Frank
PE, CQE, CQA, CER Corporation 
_The Change Agents' Handbook: A Survival Guide for Quality Improvement 
Champions_ by David W. Hutton, published by ASQC Quality Press (P.O. Box 
3005, Milwaukee, WI 53201-3005) 1994, 344 pp, $24.95 (list)
A Book Review by Norman C. Frank, PE, CQE, CQA
CER Corporation
_The Change Agents' Handbook_ provides a wealth of information and serves
as an excellent reference for effectively understanding the change process
and for effectively initiating change within your organization.  The book
is directed at all champions of  change, which includes all levels of
management, all advocates and activists, and all official change agents. 
This book would be particularly useful to the "ISO Coordinator" required
by the ISO 9000 series standards. 
Seventy-two exhibits provide drawings, diagrams, tables, guidance, and
tools to help make the material easily understandable.  The initial
chapters follow a time sequence beginning with the
identification/assignment of a change agent.  The requirements of the job,
the characteristics of a successful change agent, and the initial steps to
initiate a new process are contained in the first five chapters.  The next
three chapters cover managing the change and using your resources, both
internal and external. 
Perhaps the newly assigned change agent should read the final chapter
first.  The final chapter provides a look at reality by covering "Personal
Survival and Growth" with subtitles: What the Job Is Like, Real-Life
Experience The Agony and the Ecstasy, Looking king After Yourself, and Knowing
Four appendices provide brief overviews of some knowledge areas needed by
a change agent.  Subjects covered include "Quality in a Nutshell", "The
Body of Knowledge" (covering more than just quality), "Strategies,
Methodologies, Tools, and Techniques" (covering ering various quality tools and
approaches to achieve gains and change), and "Sources" (covering books,
videos, and organizations).  Missing are pointers to the quality forums
and electronic bulletin boards now available. 
_The Change Agents' Handbook_ provides good information for anyone who
must work within or work to achieve change.  Quality Press has once again
provided an excellent book for the quality professional and for
Mr. Frank has over 25 years experience in the field of quality, in the
areas of nuclear quality assurance, research and development, and
consulting.  He is currently in Washington, D.C., with CER Corporation out
of Las Vegas, Nevada, and can be reached at 202-488-5444. 
Well, December 1994 will be closing as dramatically as January 1994 began.
But as exciting and traumatic as 1994 has been in my life, I am closing
the door on 1994 and am approaching 1995 with the highest of expectations
and excitement. But some old and n new business and reminders before we
close out 1994: 
1.There still exists some real opportunities for you to share your talents
and skills while working with others in the Quality Arena. If you have the
interest, and qualifications to instruct, to develop curriculums, to
provide logistic planning, or  contribute team leadership skills, then
please contact Jim Wilson for further information. Jim can be reached at: 
        703-631-2670 (Metro)
        703-330-4099 (FAX)
2.This Newsletter is your Newsletter. As such, we would really like to
know what you would like to see in this letter and how we can continue to
improve its value to you. Please, send us your comments, suggestions, and
recommendations to help us make this Newsletter a valuable information
resource for your information library. 
3.In this months Message From The Chair, Mary Ann has thrown open a
challenge to all of you to submit your ideas for a Name for your
Newsletter. I think we can all agree that 'Newsletter' is not a very
innovative title for this document. However, since th is is your
Newsletter, please send us your ideas and help us to find a Newsletter
Name that would distinguish us in our Quality Community. 
4.Once again, we would like each of you to consider participating in this
Newsletter by submitting articles, commentaries, etc. that would be of
interest in our ASQC Community. If you are interested, please call me or
feel free to fax me your ideas. 
Well, 1994 is almost over and 1995 is about to begin.  I would like to
take this opportunity to wish all of you and yours, success and
fulfillment in 1995. 
Anthony A. Pastuszak
Henry Kling-14 August 1994
Business management problems come in five categories:  Profit,
Productivity, People, Paper-work, and Politics (the 5 P's).  But is that
all there is?  We work so hard at making money, paying taxes, and obeying
laws that we forget where we're going with all l of that. 
All of that is a means to an end.  So what is that end?  Is there anything
more important than to get where we're going?  No.  Then where are we
The answer is we are going to be happy.  Natural law says that we are
designed to be happy.  You don't need to tell that to children;  but
adults sometimes need reminding. 
Thus, when we see the massive loss of jobs due to Business Process
Reengineering, we have to ask Senior Managers whether they've forgotten
the difference between what's important and what's worthwhile. 
To get where we're going (long-term happiness), that's important. And the
things we need to get there are worth while.  To be happy in the long
term, we need sufficient health, wisdom, and wealth.  In other words, from
the King Midas story, we learn the foolishness of turning everything into
gold.  The bottom line contributes only partly to the quality of life. 
Down-sizing or right-sizing by Reengineering seems like the common sense
thing to do, especially during a dip in the business cycle.  But is it
wise? Losing a job is a major shock, especially when there's no job
vacancy elsewhere.  What effect does down-s down-sizing have on the quality of
life in our community?  Poverty?  Crime?  Disease? Bottom line myopia is
What good does it do to raise children and educate them for jobs that no
longer exist? So what can we do?  Join the underground economy (the
unreported gains in a barter system)? 
What else can we do?  Susana Barciela gave examples of creative management
in a recent Washington Post article: 
1.  Instead of layoffs, Lincoln Electric cut back work-hours 25% and used
down-time to do those things that they never seem to have enough time for.
Also, they cross-trained volunteers to become sales persons. 
2.  Quip Systems cut back everyone from five to four days;  then found
they could receive partial compensation from the state. 
Revolutionary ideas?  Not in Japan where life-time employment for certain
workers is a major management consideration.  In Japan, poor quality and
cancelled jobs are considered a loss to society and public shame for the
responsible managers.  Contrast that with what we have here, where
down-sized organizations continue their lavish celebrations and increased
CEO compensation.  How long can we continue our negligent, inconsiderate
ways at the expense of society? 
Comments?  Questions?  Criticisms?  Call me on (703)360-9134.
Section 0511 Meetings 
for 1995 
 January 18, 1995 Corporate Quality Training Facilities. A detailed look
at the quality focused training facilities of some of America's leading
corporations. Speaker to be determined. Meeting location: Silver Plate
Restaurant, 9910 Main St., Fairfax, VA
 February 15, 1995 The Lessons of Saturn. A look at the quality lessons
from the creation of an affordable, high-quality car steeped in customer
service. Speaker-TBD. Meeting location: Silver Plate Restaurant, 9910 Main
St., Fairfax, VA
 March 15, 1995 Annual QA/QC Software Directory. Detailed, up to date
information on software for quality assurance and quality control.
Speaker: TBD. Meeting Location: Silver Plate Restaurant, 9910 Main St.,
Fairfax, VA
 April 19, 1995 Corporate Downsizing. The effects of corporate downsizing
on short and long term quality performance. Speaker: TBD. Meeting
Location: Silver Plate Restaurant, 9910 Main St., Fairfax, VA. 
 May 17, 1995 Sizing Up Seamtech. A study of the quality processes of the
innovative chip manufacturer. Speaker: TBD. Meeting Location: Silver Plate
Restaurant, 9910 Main St., Fairfax, VA. 
 June 21, 1995. Internal Communications. A look at what Malcolm Baldrige
National Quality Award winners do to keep their employees informed.
Speaker: TBD. Meeting Location: Silver Plate Restaurant, 9910 Main St.,
Fairfax, VA. 
 July 19, 1995. The future of Total Quality Management. Case histories
that show why total quality management does or does not work. Speaker:
TBD. Meeting Location: Silver Plate Restaurant, 9910 Main St., Fairfax,
Recruiting Corner
Consultants-Quality Assurance/ISO 9000 (Full or Part Time)

STAT-A-MATRIX, the leading ISO 9000 education and consulting organization,
is seeking only the most qualified consultants to join our world-wide
professional staff. Candidates must have at least 20 years industrial
experience and be available for assignments  at least 50% of the time. We
are interested in IQA/RAB registered lead assessors and those with medical
device pharmaceutical, defense, and automotive backgrounds. Relocation not
required. Please send resume with salary requirements to: 
One Quality Place
Edison, NJ 08820
Fax:(908) 548-0409
How to Submit your thoughts to your Newsletter
To all who are interested in sharing their talents, specialty skills, and
experiences, I extend an invitation to contribute your ideas, comments,
suggestions, recommendations or any COMMENTARY you feel is appropriate. 
If you would like to participate in this activity, please mail your
thoughts and ideas to me at the following address: 
Information Concepts Unlimited
Attn: Anthony Pastuszak (Newsletter)
P.O. Box 493
Herndon, VA. 22070
If you prefer, fax to me your thoughts, or any other correspondence using
my ICU fax number: 703-742-8738. 
Northern Virginia Section 0511 would like to express its' appreciation to
ADI Technology Corporation of Arlington, Virginia for contribution of
time, effort, and resources in printing our Sections' Newsletter. Thank Q!